Knitted Three Finger Glove/Mitten

I have not been able to find any evidence that the three finger glove was knitted, but I wanted to see how they would turn out.

The historical evidence in images


Carving from the Cathedral of Saint Jean de Maurienne

The above carving looks like leather lined with fur. In the images below, I would guess the first three  are also leather.  The Luttrell Psalter image is hard to guess materials, but the colors make me think they are cloth.

Detail from The Crucifixion from the altarpiece at St. Florian in Austria, c. 1475-1500
Shepherds, Detail from Nativity by Nikolaus Stürhofer, c. 1505-1515
Shepherds, Detail from Nativity (c. 1420. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon), Robert Campin
Two shepherds (Fol. 87v) in the Luttrell Psalter (British Library MS Add. 42130), c. 1325-1335


The knitted prototype.  I am not in love with the wool I used because it is superwash, but I am please with how the pattern turned out.

My pattern

CO 28 stitches on size 7 needles
Spread evenly over three DPNs. Join to work in the round

K2 P2 for 20 rows or until cuff reaches desired length

At the beginning of the next round, switch to size 9 needles and ST stitch, adding one stitch on third needle.

Begin Thumb Gusset
Next round, knit 14 stitches, pm, M1R, K1, M1L, pm, knit around
Increase between stitch markers in this manner every third round until you have total of nine gusset stitches.
Next round, K to stitch marker, place stitches between marker on stitch holder, CO 2 st on right hand needle, K to end.
K 8 rows.

The Split
First Finger
Round 1: K8, CO 5 sts, slip 15 sts to stitch holder, k7. (20 sts)
K 10 rounds
K3, K2tog repeat until the end of round. (16 sts)
K around
K2, K2tog, repeat until the end of round. (12 sts)
K around
K1, k2tog repeat until the end of round. (8 sts)
K around
K2tog around, pull yarn through sts, and weave in securely.

Second Finger
Transfer remaining 15 stitches from stitch holder onto needles.
Round 1: K15, pick up and knit 5 sts from 5 CO sts of other finger, join to work in the round. (20 sts)
K 10 rounds
K3, K2tog repeat until the end of round. (16 sts)
K around
K2, K2tog, repeat until the end of round. (12 sts)
K around
K1, k2tog repeat until the end of round. (8 sts)
K around
K2tog around, pull yarn through sts, and weave in securely.

Place held stitches back on needle, pick up five stitches from around thumb hole, 14 st. Distribute evenly over double pointed needles. K for 1 ½ inches (about 10 rows)
(K2, K2tog) 3 times, K2
(K1, K2tog) 3 times, K2
K2tog around. Break yarn and pull through remaining 4 sts. Pull tightly and weave in securely.
Weave in all ends.

Knit Two.

Salat for Sir Bran’s Vigil

Original [Forme of Cury, S. Pegge (ed.)]


Take persel, sawge, garlec, chibolles, oynouns, leek, borage, myntes, porrectes, fenel and ton tressis, rew, rosemarye, purslarye, laue and waische hem clene, pike hem, pluk hem small wiþ þyn honde and myng hem wel with rawe oile. lay on vynegur and salt, and serue it forth.

My recreation
2 bunches parsley
1 handful of sage
2 bunches of scallions
1 onion
3 leeks (white part only)
1 bunch mint
2 fennel bulbs
2 bunches watercress
1 sprig of rosemary
1 cup apple cider vinegar
1 cup extra virgin olive oil
1 tsp salt

  1. Chop onion, fennel, and leeks into bite sized pieces
  2. Combine vinegar, oil, and salt
  3. Add the chopped roots to the vinaigrette along with the rosemary leaves stripped from the sprig.
  4. Wash the remaining herbs, strip from stems and hand tear the leaves
  5. Add prepared herbs to the mixture in the vinaigrette, tossing to coat
  6. This dish travels well, if you do the following:
    Do not introduce the greens to the vinaigrette until you are ready to serve. As this was going to be for an event the next day. I put the mixed roots in the vinaigrette and let it set overnight. I washed and stripped the herbs, and took them on a spin in my salad spinner then put them in a gallon zip-top bag. When I put the salat on the vigil table, I dumped the roots in vinaigrette into the serving bowl, poured the herbs on top, then tossed to coat the herbs and distribute the roots evenly throughout.

    My salad green modern equivalents

    • persel = parsley
    • sawge = sage
    • garlec = garlic
    • chibolles = scallions
    • oynouns = onions
    • leek = leek
    • borage = borage
    • myntes = mint
    • porrectes = leeks, scallions, and/or green onions
    • fenel = fennel
    • ton tressis = cress (I used watercress)
    • rew = rue
    • rosemarye= rosemary
    • purslarye = purslane

    I could not get borage or purslane, and I totally forgot the garlic. There is a different version of this recipe which calls for “grene garlec” which would be ramps which are out of season in September
    N.B. The recipe explicitly calls for rue, but rue is a traditional abortifacient. I do not use rue in any cooking application.

Compost for Bran’s Vigil

Original [Forme of Cury, S. Pegge (ed.)]


Take rote of parsel. pasternak of rasenns. scrape hem waisthe hem
clene. take rapes & caboches ypared and icorne. take an erthen
panne with clene water & set it on the fire. cast all þise þerinne.
whan þey buth boiled cast þerto peeres & parboile hem wel. take þise
thynges up & lat it kele on a fair cloth, do þerto salt whan it is
colde in a vessel take vineger & powdour & safroun & do þerto. & lat
alle þise thinges lye þerin al nyzt oþer al day, take wyne greke and
hony clarified togider lumbarde mustard & raisouns corance al hool.
& grynde powdour of canel powdour douce. & aneys hole. & fenell seed.
take alle þise thynges & cast togyder in a pot of erthe. and take
þerof whan þou wilt & serue forth.

My recreation
Vegetables and Fruit
2 Celery roots
3 Parsnips
4 Turnips
1/2 Medium Cabbage
2 Handfuls of Baby Carrots You could use 2 whole carrots, but I have baby carrots on hand and they are already peeled
3 Pears
1 tsp salt

Pickling solutions
1 cup apple cider vinegar
1 tsp Powder Douce
1 pinch saffron

2 cups Moscato
1/2 cup honey
2 Tbsp Lumbard Mustard
1/2 cup currants
1 tsp Ceylon Cinnamon
1 tsp aniseed
1 tsp fennel seed

    1. Decore the Cabbage and cut into chunks
    2. Peel the celery root, parsnips, and turnips. Cut them and the baby carrots into bite sized chunks
    3. Put in a large stock pot and cover with water
    4. Bring to a boil and cook for about 10 minutes
    5. While the vegetables are cooking, peel and core the pears and cut into bite sized chunks
    6. Add to the stock pot at the 10 minute mark
    7. Cook and additional 10 minutes
    8. Strain and spread out into a single layer on a towel and sprinkle with salt
    9. Allow to cool
    10. While the vegetables cool, combine the pickling mixture
    11. Combine the cooled vegetables and the pickling mixture in a non-reactive container, cover and let sit for at least 8 hours, shaking occasionally to blend

    Making the Dressing

    1. Mix the wine and honey in a sauce pan and bring to a boil
    2. Stir to combine ht and remove from the heat
    3. Add the wine mix to the rest of the ingredients in a non-reactive container, and stir to combine
    4. Add to the pickling vegetables and mix well

Lumbard Mustard

Original [Forme of Cury, S. Pegge (ed.)]


Take Mustard seed and waishe it & drye it in an ovene, grynde it drye.
farse it thurgh a farse. clarifie hony with wyne & vynegur & stere it
wel togedrer and make it thikke ynowz. & whan þou wilt spende þerof
make it tnynne with wyne.

My recreation
1/2 cup whole yellow mustard seeds
1/2 cup red wine
1/2 cup red wine vinegar
1/2 cup honey

  1. Grind the mustard seeds
  2. Combine the wine, vinegar, and honey in a sauce pan
  3. Bring the mixture to a boil, stirring constantly
  4. Combine the ground mustard with the liquid in a heat resistant container

This looks very loose but it thickens over time.

Pigeons Stewed for Bran Atte Rowan’s Vigil

Original [Forme of Cury, S. Pegge (ed.)]


Take peions and stop hem with garlec ypylled and with gode erbes
ihewe. and do hem in an erthen pot. cast þerto gode broth and whyte
grece. Powdour fort. safroun verious & salt.

My recreation

Squab is hard to acquire, is expensive, and dark meat chicken is close enough in taste and texture for this application

8 lbs(ish) dark meat chicken 10 leg quarters
1 quart stock
6 cloves garlic, chopped
4 springs fresh thyme
1 spring fresh tarragon
1 tsp powder forte
1 pinch saffron
1 cup verjuice
1 pinch salt I didn’t add much salt since I was using commercial stock which is plenty salty

The original calls for white grease, but I cooking the quarters with the skin on which has a decent amount of fat, it is too dry I will add a fat next time

  1. Place chicken legs in a large stock pot
  2. Add all other ingredients to the pot and bring to a boil.
  3. Cover, reduce heat, and simmer until done internal temp 165 F – about 30 minutes.

This is for Bran’s vigil table, so I am serving as pulled chicken style

Powder Forte

Transcription of original recipe taken from Opera dell’arte di cucinare by Bartolomeo Scappi (1570)
LXXV Specie negre e forte per assay savore.
Specie negre e forte per fare savore; toy mezo quarto de garofali e do onze de pevere e toy arquanto pevere longo e do noce moscate e fa de tute specie.

Translated recipe by Louise Smithson (known in the SCA as Mistess Helewyse de Birkestad, OL)
LXXV Black and strong spices for many sauces.
Black and strong spices to make sauces. Take half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, two ounces of pepper and an (equal) quantity of long pepper and nutmeg and do as all spices (grind).

My recreation
2 Tbsp ground ginger
1 Tbsp black pepper (ground)
1 Tbsp long pepper (ground)
1/2 Tbsp nutmeg (ground) this was half a small nutmeg not a precisely measured amount
1 scant tsp cloves (ground)

Mostaccioli for Petrona’s Vigil

Transcription of original recipe taken from Opera dell’arte di cucinare by Bartolomeo Scappi (1570)
Per fare morselletti, cioè mostaccioli alla Milanese.
Cap CXLII. Sesto libro folio 420.
Piglinosi quindeci uove fresche, & battanosi in una cazzuola, & passnosi per lo setaccio con due libre & mezza di zuccaro fino fatto in polvere, & mezza oncia di anici crudi, overo pitartamo pesto, & un grano o due di muschio fino, & mettanosi con ese libre due & mezza di farina, & battasi ogni cosa per tre quarti d’hora, di modo che venga la pasta come quella delle frittelle, & lascisi riposare per un quarto d’hora, & ribbattasi un’altra volta, poi si habbiano apparecchiati fogli di carta fatti a lucerne onti, overo tortiere altre di sponde con cialde sotto senza essere bagnate di cosa alcuna, & dapoi mettasi essa pasta dentro le lucerne, o tortiere, & non sia d’altezza piu che la grossezza d’un dito, & subito si spolverizzino di zuccaro, & ponganosi nel forno che sia caldo, overo quelle delle tortiere, cuocanosi come le torte, & come tal pasta sarà sgonfiata, & haverà in tutto persa l’humidità, & sarà alquanto sodetta, cioè sia come una focaccia tenera, cavisi della tortiera o lucerna, & subito si taglino con un coltello largo & sottile, a fette larghe due dita, & lunghe a beneplacito, & rimettanosi nel forno con fogli di carta sotto a biscottarsi, rivoltandoli spesso, però il forno non sia tanto caldo come di sopra, & come saranno bene asciutte, cavinosi, & conservinosi perche sono sempre migliori il secondo giorno che il primo, & durrano un mese nella lor perfettione.

Translated recipe by Louise Smithson (known in the SCA as Mistess Helewyse de Birkestad, OL)
To make little morsels, that is “mostaccioli” in the Milan style
Take fifteen fresh eggs and beat them in a casserole and pass through the sieve with two and a half pounds of sugar fine and powdered, and half an ounce of raw aniseed or partly crushed (aniseed) and a grain or two of fine musk, and put with this two pounds and a half of flour and beat everything for three quarters of an hour, so that it becomes like the pasta for fritters and let it rest for a quarter hour and rebeat it another time. Then one takes a sheet of paper put into a “lucerne” and greased, or a ‘tortiere’ with wafers beneath that have not been bathed in such a way (not greased) and then put this paste into the ‘lucerne’ or ‘tortiere’ (specific pan types) until it is not higher than the thickness of a finger and immediately powder with sugar and put it into the oven that is hot, or the tart pan, and cook it like a tart and when this pasta is cooked (not wet) and will in all lose the humidity and it will be enough cooked, that is like a tender focaccia, pull out the ‘lucerne’ or ‘tortiere’ and immediately cut with a large thin knife, cut in slices as large as two fingers, and as long as one pleases, and put them in the oven with pieces of paper beneath the biscuits, turn them enough, ensure that the oven is not as hot as the one above (second baking is at a lower temp than first), and when they are well dried, pull them out and save them because they are always better the second day than the first and they will keep for a month in their perfection.

N.B. A pound is not a pound the world around during the 16th Century. In Rome, the pound is 12 ounces not 16. So this recipe is 15 eggs, 30 ounces sugar, 30 ounces flour, 1/2 ounce aniseed.

My recreation

Mistress Helewyse indicated to use a 9×9 pan for doing a 1/3 batch, but I needed to make enough for a vigil so I wanted a 9×13’s worth, so I went for a half-ish batch using 8 eggs.

8 eggs of largish size (from my backyard flock) (15 7/8 oz by volume)
16 oz sugar
16 oz AP flour
1 Tbsp aniseed

  1. Whisked eggs and added to stand mixer
  2. Grind the aniseed in a spice grinder
  3. Added sugar and aniseed to blender and pulsed until superfine
  4. Added sugar/anise mixture to the stand mixer and stirred to combine
  5. Slowly added flour until incorporated
  6. Mixed for 15 minutes in the stand mixer (not the 45 minutes by hand indicated in Scappi) and it looked like smooth and like fritter batter
  7. Let it sit for 15 minutes
  8. Mixed for another 15 minutes
  9. Pour into a greased 9×13 pan (I used a non-stick spray)
  10. Bake at 350 F for 30 minutes
  11. Cool bar for 15 minutes
  12. Cut into 1 inch strips
  13. Return to oven at 300 F for 30 minutes on each side

What I learned.

  • I could have used 7 eggs and 14 ounces each sugar and flour for the 9×13 pan.
  • My aniseed needs to be replaced, because it seems little weak.
  • I probably need to have the oven at a lower temp and for longer for the second bake. They feel a little softer than I want them, but hopefully they will dry out more overnight. I didn’t to leave them in any longer because they were becoming too brown. They taste fine, but they texture isn’t quite right.

Spice Mixtures from Le Ménagier de Paris

Powder Douce

Original   Le Ménagier de Paris, J. Hinson (trans.) HIPPOCRAS. To make powdered hippocras, take a quarter-ounce of very fine cinnamon, hand-picked by tasting it, an ounce of very fine meche ginger and an ounce of grains of paradise, a sixth of an ounce of nutmeg and galingale together, and pound it all together. And when you want to make hippocras, take a good half-ounce or more of this powder and two quarter-ounces of sugar, and mix them together, and a quart of wine as measured in Paris. And note that the powder and the sugar mixed together make “duke’s powder”.

My recreation

All the spices are ground before measuring
1 Tbsp Ceylon Cinnamon
4 Tbsp Ginger
4 Tbsp Grains of Paradise
1 tsp Nutmeg
1 tsp Galingale
10 Tbsp Sugar

Powder Fine

Original   Le Ménagier de Paris, J. Hinson (trans.) FINE POWDER of spices. Take an ounce and a drachma of white ginger, a quarter-ounce of hand-picked cinnamon, half a quarter-ounce each of grains and cloves, and a quarter-ounce of rock sugar, and grind to powder.

My recreation

All the spices are ground before measuring
3 Tbsp Ginger
2 tsp Ceylon Cinnamon
1 tsp Grains of Paradise
1 tsp Cloves
2 tsp Sugar

Genovese Tart for Genoveva’s vigil

Original  Valoise Armstrong’s translation of Das Kuchbuch der Sabina Welserin

30 To make Genovese tart

Take eighteen ounces of chard or spinach, three ounces of grated cheese, two and one half ounces of olive oil and the fresh cheese from six ounces of curdled milk [2]. And blanch the herbs and chop them small and stir it all together and make a good covered tart with it.

My recreation

I didn’t have the time to make my own fresh cheese, but I could not find quark as recommended in the footnotes of the translation. I found a few website that indicated that you could replicate quark by adding sour cream to ricotta, the proportions varied wildly so I just added a couple tablespoons of sour cream to the ricotta

18 oz frozen spinach
3 oz grated Munster cheese
2.5 oz extra virgin olive oil
6 oz of ricotta cheese
2 Tbsp sour cream
1 pre-made deep dish pie crust

  1. Thaw the spinach and squeeze it the excess water out of it
  2. Mix the ricotta, sour cream, and olive oil until smooth in a large bowl
  3. Add the spinach to the mixture
  4. Distribute the grated Munster cheese over the bottom of the crust
  5. Pour the spinach mixture into the crust over the cheese
  6. Bake at 375 F for about 40 minutes, or until the mixture is set and the crust is golden brown

Cream Tarts for Genoveva’s vigil

Original  Valoise Armstrong’s translation of Das Kuchbuch der Sabina Welserin

122 To make a cream tart

For three tarts, which should each be about a foot wide, take one quart of the best cream that you can find, and put it in a pan over the fire. And put two eggs, which are well beaten, into it, and when it begins to boil, then take six more eggs and let them be well beaten and put them into it, and some good flour and pour it slowly into the pan. And one should stir it constantly, so that it does not burn. After that, when the eggs have been poured in, throw a quarter of a pound of fresh butter into it and let it simmer together, until it becomes thick. Afterwards let it cool, and when it is cold, then put it into three pastry shells, each of which is a foot wide. And let it bake in the tart pan. If you would put it straight away on the table, then sprinkle a quarter pound of sugar over all three, together with a little rose water. And one should serve it forth while it is yet warm. This recipe was given to me by the elder Bernhard Meiting, I have not yet prepared it.

My recreation

NOTE:I learned my lesson about stick to the letter of the recipe with the cherry tarts. I did not put any flour in the cream mixture because I understand that the cooked egg will tighten up the mixture and not require flour to thicken, so I omitted it. I also tempered the eggs, which the recipe did not call for.

1 qt whipping cream
8 eggs they were from my backyard flock so there were large-ish
1/4 lb (1 stick) unsalted butter
2 pre-made deep dish pie crusts
1/4 lb sugar
2 Tbsp rose water

  1. Put the cream in a heavy sauce pan
  2. Add two well beaten eggs to the cream, and whisk together
  3. Crack the additional 6 eggs, beat well, and set aside
  4. Heat the mixture over medium heat, whisking gently and continuously
  5. Once the cream mixture is simmering, ladle some of the hot cream mixture into the remaining eggs while whisking
  6. Add the eggs into the pan of simmering cream, whisking continuously
  7. Continue to heat the cream mixture, whisking continuously, until it “coats the back of the spoon” (aka Put a wooden spoon into the mixture. Remove, and run your finger through the middle of the cream mixture on the back of the spoon. If a clear path is left and remaining does not run into the path, the mixture is ready.)
  8. Remove the custard from the heat and let if cool to room temperature
  9. Divide the custard between two 9″ deep dish pie crusts the recipe says it will divide between three 12″ tart pans, there is not nearly enough custard for that
  10. Bake at 375 F for 35 minutes, or until the edges of the crusts look golden brown whichever comes first
  11. When the tarts come out of the oven, sprinkle with the sugar and rose water
  12. What actually I did was mix the sugar and rose water together, then sprinkle over the warm tarts. This sounded smarter than it was, it was hard to get distributed over the tops. I ended up taking half the mixture in my hands and rubbing my palms over the top of the tart. It worked-ish. I will try a different delivery method next time.